Affidavit of Title: Definition, Importance, and Practical Examples


An affidavit of title is a vital legal document in real estate transactions that certifies the seller’s ownership and addresses potential legal issues associated with the property. This comprehensive guide explores the purpose, contents, importance, and key considerations of an affidavit of title, offering insights to protect property buyers and sellers alike.

What is an affidavit of title?

An affidavit of title is a critical legal document used in real estate transactions to affirm the ownership status of a property and disclose any existing or potential legal concerns associated with it. Essentially, it serves as a sworn statement made by the property seller, confirming their rightful ownership of the property and providing crucial information to safeguard the interests of both the buyer and the seller.

Understanding an affidavit of title

The primary purpose of an affidavit of title is to provide protection and transparency in real estate transactions. It accomplishes this by addressing two main concerns:

  1. Protection from legal issues: An affidavit of title offers legal protection to the buyer, ensuring they have a strong claim over the property and protecting them from unexpected legal disputes.
  2. Transparency: It provides transparency by disclosing information about the property’s status, including any outstanding liens, bankruptcy proceedings, concurrent property sales, and other pending legal matters.

Most states require the inclusion of an affidavit of title as part of the essential paperwork for transferring property ownership. Additionally, title companies typically mandate its presence before issuing title insurance.

Contents of an affidavit of title

While specific guidelines for an affidavit of title may vary by state, it generally includes the following key details:

  • Seller’s information: The document typically starts with personal information about the seller, including their full name and address.
  • Ownership affirmation: It contains a sworn statement from the seller, confirming that they are the sole and legitimate owner of the property in question.
  • No concurrent sales: The affidavit asserts that the seller is not concurrently selling the property to any other party.
  • Lien disclosures: It declares the absence of any liens or assessments against the property, ensuring the buyer is not burdened with unpaid debts related to the property.
  • Bankruptcy status: The document addresses whether the seller has declared bankruptcy or is currently involved in bankruptcy proceedings.

Additionally, the affidavit of title may mention specific issues that need attention, such as an existing mortgage on the property. In such cases, it outlines the process for addressing these issues. Furthermore, it may include information on easements, encroachments, or other matters not readily apparent in public records.

If any exception in the affidavit of title raises concerns for the buyer, they can request the seller to resolve the issue before finalizing the transaction. This could involve the seller clearing a lien or addressing more complex issues like updating land surveys or resolving easement disputes.

For the affidavit to be legally valid, it must bear the seal of a notary public, along with a signed attestation by the seller or the issuer of the affidavit.

Weigh the risks and benefits

Here is a list of the benefits and the drawbacks to consider.

  • Protection from unexpected legal issues
  • Transparency in real estate transactions
  • Fraud prevention
  • Liability shield from property liens
  • Additional paperwork in real estate transactions
  • Potential delays if issues in the affidavit require resolution
  • Cost associated with notarization and legal counsel

Purpose of an affidavit of title

An affidavit of title serves several crucial purposes in real estate transactions:

  • Protection from unexpected legal issues: By providing a clear record of property ownership and addressing potential legal disputes, it shields the buyer from unforeseen legal complications after the sale.
  • Preventing liability for liens: It safeguards the buyer from assuming liabilities related to liens, such as HOA liens, mechanic’s liens, or government liens due to unpaid property taxes.
  • Fraud prevention: The affidavit confirms the authenticity of the property transaction, ensuring that all documents are in order, deeds are valid, and the seller genuinely owns the property. This helps prevent fraudulent real estate transactions.

Special considerations

An affidavit of title goes by various names, including owner’s affidavit, seller’s affidavit, owner’s declaration, or borrower’s affidavit. While it is most commonly associated with real estate transactions, it can also apply to other scenarios, such as the transfer of a car title.

The language used in an affidavit of title is generally standardized, including the seller’s name, address, and their assertion of property ownership. Additionally, it addresses liens, bankruptcy status, concurrent property sales, and property assessments.

Both title companies and mortgage lenders often require an affidavit of title as part of the real property sale process to ensure a smooth and legally sound transaction.

If there is a lien on the property title, the seller can choose to have the lien removed by settling the debt before the sale. For example, if a homeowner failed to fully pay a contractor for a home renovation, the contractor may place a mechanic’s lien on the property.

To remove the lien, the homeowner must satisfy the outstanding debt, obtain proof of payment, and request the lienholder to remove the lien. This is typically done by filing a Release of Lien on Real Property form, which is then recorded at the county recorder’s office.

Frequently asked questions

Is an affidavit of title required in all real estate transactions?

No, the requirement for an affidavit of title can vary by state and may depend on the specific circumstances of the transaction. However, it is commonly required by both states and title companies in real estate transactions to ensure transparency and protect the interests of all parties involved.

What happens if a lien is discovered in the affidavit of title?

If a lien is disclosed in the affidavit of title, it is essential for the seller to address and resolve the issue before the property sale can proceed. This typically involves satisfying the outstanding debt, obtaining proof of payment, and having the lien officially removed by the lienholder.

Can I use a template to create an affidavit of title?

While templates for affidavits of title can be found online, it’s crucial to ensure that the document complies with the legal requirements of your specific jurisdiction. It is advisable to seek legal counsel or guidance to draft an affidavit of title that fully aligns with the laws and regulations applicable in your area.

Is an affidavit of title only required in real estate transactions?

No, an affidavit of title can also be required in other scenarios, such as the transfer of a car title or the sale of other types of property. Its purpose remains the same: to certify ownership and disclose any legal concerns related to the property in question.

Key takeaways

  • An affidavit of title is a notarized, legal document provided by the property seller, outlining the property’s ownership status and any pertinent legal issues.
  • It is an essential part of real estate transactions, ensuring transparency and protecting both the buyer and seller.
  • The contents of an affidavit of title typically include personal information about the seller, statements affirming property ownership, and disclosures regarding liens, bankruptcy, and other legal matters.
View article sources
  1. Affidavit of Title – University of Missouri-Kansas City
  2. Affidavit for the Record – University of Maine
  3. Affidavit of Affixation – University of Tennessee system
  4. D.2.4.2.F (Form) Conflict of Interest Affidavits – Alamo Colleges District
  5. Two Names on Deed, One Person Dies, What Then? – SuperMoney
  6. Closing Documents for Buyers and Sellers: 2023 Ultimate Checklist – SuperMoney