Coverage Ratio: Definition, Types, And Examples

Article Summary:

Coverage ratios are vital financial metrics used to gauge a company’s ability to manage debt and meet its financial obligations. Learn about different types of coverage ratios, how they work, their importance, and how to interpret them.

Coverage ratios: A key to financial stability

Financial health is the lifeblood of any company, and one essential tool to assess it is through coverage ratios. Coverage ratios are essential metrics used by investors and analysts to understand a company’s ability to service its debt and meet financial obligations like interest payments or dividends. In this article, we’ll delve into the world of coverage ratios, exploring what they are, their types, formulas, and practical examples.

What is a coverage ratio?

A coverage ratio is a financial metric designed to measure a company’s capacity to meet its financial commitments. The higher the coverage ratio, the more easily a company can make interest payments on its debt and distribute dividends to shareholders. Analysts and investors use coverage ratios to assess a company’s financial health over time, tracking changes to determine its stability.

Understanding the significance of coverage ratios

Coverage ratios serve as early warning signals, helping identify companies in potential financial distress. However, it’s crucial to note that low ratios don’t automatically indicate financial trouble. Various factors influence these ratios, and a thorough examination of a company’s financial statements is essential to gauge its overall health. Key financial statement items, such as net income, interest expense, outstanding debt, and total assets, play a crucial role in assessing a company’s coverage ratios.

Using coverage ratios: A closer look

Investors and analysts employ coverage ratios in two primary ways. First, they track changes in a company’s debt situation over time. If a company’s debt-service coverage ratio is teetering on the acceptable range, it’s vital to analyze the firm’s recent financial history. A declining ratio could indicate trouble on the horizon.

Coverage ratios also prove invaluable for benchmarking a company against its competitors. Evaluating similar businesses is crucial, as what constitutes an acceptable coverage ratio varies by industry. What’s safe in one sector might be risky in another. If a company’s coverage ratio significantly deviates from its competitors, this can be a red flag.

While comparing coverage ratios within the same industry is valuable, doing so across different sectors can be misleading, akin to comparing apples and oranges.

Types of coverage ratios

Interest coverage ratio

The interest coverage ratio assesses a company’s ability to meet its interest expenses on its debt. This ratio, also known as the times interest earned ratio, is calculated as follows:

Interest coverage ratio = EBIT / Interest expense

EBIT, or earnings before interest and taxes, is the company’s operating profit.

Generally, an interest coverage ratio of two or higher is considered satisfactory.

Debt service coverage ratio

The debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) measures a company’s capability to pay its entire debt service, which includes all principal and interest payments due in the near term. The DSCR is defined as:

DSCR = Net operating income / Total debt service

A DSCR of one or above indicates that a company generates enough earnings to cover its debt obligations.

Asset coverage ratio

The asset coverage ratio is akin to the debt service coverage ratio, but it examines balance sheet assets instead of income versus debt. The formula for the asset coverage ratio is:

Asset coverage ratio = (Total assets – Short-term liabilities) / Total debt

Total assets include tangibles like land, buildings, machinery, and inventory.

As a rule of thumb, utilities should maintain an asset coverage ratio of at least 1.5, while industrial companies should aim for a ratio of at least 2.

Other coverage ratios

While the above three are the most prominent coverage ratios, several others are used by analysts:

  1. Fixed-Charge Coverage Ratio: Measures a firm’s ability to cover fixed charges, including debt payments, interest expenses, and equipment lease costs. This is crucial for banks evaluating whether to lend money to a business.
  2. Loan Life Coverage Ratio (LLCR): Estimates a firm’s solvency and its ability to repay outstanding loans. It’s calculated by dividing the net present value of money available for debt repayment by the amount of outstanding debt.
  3. EBITDA-to-Interest Coverage Ratio: Evaluates a company’s financial resilience, specifically its ability to pay interest expenses.
  4. Preferred Dividend Coverage Ratio: Measures a company’s ability to meet required preferred dividend payments.
  5. Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR): Ensures financial institutions hold sufficient liquid assets to meet short-term obligations, acting as a stress test for market-wide shocks.
  6. Capital Loss Coverage Ratio: Reflects the difference between an asset’s book value and the amount received from a sale concerning nonperforming assets. This ratio indicates how much transaction assistance is provided by a regulatory body for outside investors.

Examples of coverage ratios

Let’s illustrate the significance of coverage ratios with a fictional company, Cedar Valley Brewing. Suppose the company generates a quarterly profit of $200,000, and its interest payments on debt amount to $50,000. Due to favorable borrowing during a period of low interest rates, Cedar Valley Brewing’s interest coverage ratio appears robust:

Interest coverage ratio = $300,000 / $50,000 = 6.0

On the other hand, the debt-service coverage ratio reveals that the company pays a substantial principal amount quarterly, totaling $140,000. The resulting DSCR of 1.05 leaves little room for error if the company’s sales unexpectedly decline:

DSCR = $190,000 / $200,000 = 1.05

Although Cedar Valley Brewing generates positive cash flow, assessing its debt-service coverage, it appears to carry a higher degree of debt-related risk.

The bottom line

Understanding coverage ratios is a critical aspect of assessing a company’s financial stability. These ratios provide valuable insights into a company’s ability to manage its debt and meet its financial obligations. While a high coverage ratio is generally a positive sign, it’s essential to analyze these ratios in the context of the industry and sector to make meaningful comparisons. Remember, what’s considered acceptable can vary widely.

By exploring various coverage ratios, you can gain a comprehensive view of a company’s financial health. This knowledge is invaluable for investors, analysts, and anyone interested in evaluating the stability and viability of a business. Utilize these financial metrics as part of your due diligence when making investment decisions or assessing the health of a company.


Here is a list of the benefits and drawbacks to consider.

  • Quickly assess a company’s financial stability
  • Identify early warning signs of financial distress
  • Compare companies within the same industry
  • Inform investment decisions
  • May not consider industry-specific variations
  • Doesn’t provide the complete financial picture
  • Historical data may not predict future performance

Frequently asked questions

Are coverage ratios the same for all industries?

No, coverage ratios are not the same for all industries. What’s considered a healthy coverage ratio can vary significantly depending on the sector. Some industries are inherently more capital-intensive and require higher ratios to ensure stability, while others may operate comfortably with lower ratios. It’s crucial to compare a company’s coverage ratios with those of its peers in the same industry for a meaningful assessment.

Can a company with a low coverage ratio recover financially?

Yes, a company with a low coverage ratio can potentially recover financially. A low coverage ratio may indicate financial stress, but it doesn’t guarantee insolvency. Companies facing temporary challenges or changes in their operations may take steps to improve their coverage ratios. This could involve reducing debt, increasing profitability, or restructuring their financial obligations. However, recovery is not guaranteed, and it often requires strategic efforts and external factors to align favorably.

Why are coverage ratios important for investors?

Coverage ratios are essential for investors because they provide valuable insights into a company’s financial health and risk profile. By assessing coverage ratios, investors can quickly gauge whether a company is capable of meeting its financial obligations. Early warning signs of financial distress can be detected through these ratios. They also help investors make informed decisions, whether to invest in a particular company or diversify their portfolio based on risk tolerance and financial stability.

How often should investors review a company’s coverage ratios?

The frequency of reviewing a company’s coverage ratios can vary depending on an investor’s strategy and the company’s specific circumstances. In general, long-term investors might review these ratios periodically, such as on a quarterly or annual basis, as part of a comprehensive assessment of their investments. However, short-term or more active traders might monitor coverage ratios more frequently, even on a daily or weekly basis, to react promptly to any concerning developments.

Can coverage ratios predict a company’s future financial performance?

While coverage ratios are valuable indicators of a company’s current financial health, they are not guaranteed predictors of future performance. These ratios assess the company’s ability to meet its current obligations based on historical data. The business environment is dynamic, and various factors can impact a company’s future, such as economic conditions, industry changes, and management decisions. Therefore, while coverage ratios provide crucial insights, they should be used in conjunction with other analysis methods to assess a company’s potential for future success.

Key takeaways

  • Coverage ratios are vital financial metrics used to gauge a company’s ability to manage debt and meet its financial obligations.
  • They come in various forms, including interest coverage ratio, debt service coverage ratio, and asset coverage ratio.
  • Investors use coverage ratios to assess a company’s financial health, detect early warning signs of financial distress, and make informed investment decisions.
  • Coverage ratios should be compared with industry peers, as what’s acceptable can vary by sector.
  • While important, coverage ratios alone may not predict a company’s future financial performance.
View Article Sources
  1. Note on Benjamin Graham’s Views on Bond Valuation – Columbia University School of Professional Studies
  2. How to Determine the Financial Health of a Company – Harvard Business School Online
  3. Interest Coverage Ratio: What It Is and How to Calculate It – SuperMoney