This article takes a deep dive into the world of participation mortgages, a financing solution many people have never heard of. The profit-sharing and built-in diversification features of participation mortgages make it an interesting option for investors and borrowers alike.
A participation mortgage allows two or more investors to have fractional equitable interests. The arrangement allows borrowers and lenders to share in the rental or resale proceeds from a property owned by the borrower.
In this article, we will discuss in detail how this financing model works, its pros and cons, and why you may want to consider it when investing in real estate.
Let’s start with the basics. What exactly is a participation mortgage?
What is a participation mortgage?
A participation mortgage is a loan that offers fractional equitable interests to two or more parties in the event that the property is sold or rented out. The contractual agreement is often between multiple lenders, borrowers, or between borrowers and lenders.
Intended real-estate investors can only access a commercial home loan from non-traditional lenders. Unlike when disbursing a traditional mortgage, lead lenders find participation loans to be a great business opportunity as they significantly minimize the risk of losing money.
How does a participation mortgage work?
Most participation mortgages work via a relatively simple profit-sharing approach. The parties involved take on the risk of a real estate investment, each getting a share of the rental or resale proceeds. When they rent out or sell the commercial property, they deduct the operating expenses then share the net operating income.
In a typical arrangement, the borrower receives the largest share of the profits. They can, for instance, receive 60% of the proceeds while the lender takes the other 40%. This is only a demonstration and not the actual percentages. The parties involved will negotiate the terms and their preferred share amount, before signing the agreement.
In addition to their share, the mortgagor expects the borrower to pay back the principal loan amount. However, some credit facilities have more complex arrangements with partial ownership of the mortgaged property.
Currently, this once hyped-up funding model is less common with personal loans and only applicable in commercial business lending. Participation loans are an attractive option for investors looking to invest in commercial real estate deals such as rental apartments, offices, and industrial properties.
What are the costs of a participation agreement?
The costs of a participation mortgage are similar to those of a regular mortgage. They include interest rates, closing fees, and fees to third parties involved in the inspection and titling of the property. However, since the lenders will receive a percentage of income generated by the property and its sale, the interest rates tend to be significantly lower.
Types Of Payments
Participating mortgages allow borrowers to make principal and interest payments or interest-only payments. The principal and interest payments plan is the method everyone related to traditional mortgages. Part of the payment goes toward the principal and the balance pays the interest.
The interest-only payment plan allows the borrower to pay the loan’s interest first, still owing the principal amount. After clearing the interest, participation mortgages can take an amortization approach, call for a balloon payment, or get refinanced. Since they offer low monthly payments, they are an ideal option for persons looking to invest in more substantial property.
Types of participation mortgages
Participation among borrowers
Two or more persons, who possess excellent personal finance management skills, take advantage of the various credit facilities for their real-estate investment goals. This legal arrangement increases their purchasing power as they can access larger loans with lower interest rates.
What’s more, in this type of arrangement, the mortgage lender views each borrower as an individual mortgagee. However, all borrowers are responsible for the entire loan amount and will be held accountable if any of them cannot make payments.
Participation between borrower and lender
A lender can forge this type of mortgage arrangement when a borrower wants to purchase an undeveloped commercial property and reaches out to them for financial support. In this case, the lender offers a loan at subsidized interest rates for a share of the net income when the borrower rents or sells the property.
Participation among lenders
Participation mortgages are common among lenders. In this lender participation model, a lead bank will approach other lenders with the aim of accessing a larger real estate loan. This is often the case when the lender has taken out a credit facility, but it cannot cater to its investment needs. Also, participation mortgages are a great way for start-up lenders and those with small capital assets to diversify their loan portfolios and make up for diminished earnings.
One of the most incredible benefits that prompt a lead lender to recruit partner lenders is that it allows them to diversify their loan portfolios, which guards against the market’s volatility. It also strategically positions businesses, giving them the financial power to undertake more lucrative real estate investment plans.
Pros and cons of a participation mortgage
Here is a list of the benefits and the drawbacks to consider.
- Lower interest rates. Lower monthly payments lower the entry cost of investing in property and free capital for other investments.
- Larger loan amounts. Taking out a personal loan can be complex. The lender will carefully scrutinize your portfolio and only end up disbursing a limited amount of money because these are mostly termed riskier loans. However, with participation mortgages, the lender will gladly offer larger amounts of money for a stake in the investment.
- Allows collaboration between lenders and borrowers. This provides cash flow opportunities as lenders share in the profits.
- Reduces a lender’s credit risk. Since the lenders receive a percentage of the property owned by the borrower, they significantly strengthen their credit control.
- Allows for asset diversification: Participation mortgages enable borrowers and lenders to minimize the risks associated with investing in one project.
- Potential for overborrowing. Since the borrower has access to a large pool of funds, they might bite more than they can chew. As a result, they may default, causing the lender to lose money.
- The lender might take advantage and offer borrowers riskier loans. For this reason, the importance of doing due diligence before applying for any participation mortgage is of paramount importance.
Considerations and risks
The larger loan amounts and introductory teaser rates offered are meant to encourage the borrower to relinquish significant shares of their investment. As such, it is vital for a mortgagee to make sure that the money they save paying the lower interest rates will be more than the amount payable to the lender. Furthermore, participation mortgages work for people looking to accumulate assets within a short period.
On the other hand, lenders need to implement effective cash monitoring tactics to ensure the revenues the borrower indicates are accurate. Incidents where borrowers specify a lower net income as is the case is not unheard of. That means keeping an inventory of the revenue generated and the expenses. For the most part, this will involve actively managing the property to ensure that the borrower is honest about any repairs and improvements.
Frequently asked questions about participation mortgages
Why would a lender want to make a participation loan?
When a lender participates in this kind of financing arrangement, they gain revenue from the property, significantly reducing the risks associated with such large loan disbursements. Additionally, it allows for diversification, increasing their assets.
What is the difference between a loan participation and a loan syndication?
Loan participations are financing solutions that allow two or more parties to share a percentage of the revenue generated from business properties. Borrowers, lenders, or borrowers and lenders can team up in a participation mortgage.
On the other hand, loan syndication happens when two or more lenders come together to finance one borrower.
What is an equity participation mortgage?
An equity participation mortgage is a financing solution where the lender offers loans on commercial properties at interest rates below market price. In exchange, the lender receives part of the income the property generates and/or a percentage of the property’s value after appreciation.
What is the difference between loan participation and loan assignments?
The difference between the two is that a lender in a participation model disburses a loan and is actively managing the borrower’s account. The borrower pays their monthly installments directly to them.
However, in the case of loan assignments, the lender transfers an outstanding loan to another lender. The borrower will then be forwarding payments to the new lender.
- Participation loans can be mutually beneficial to the lender and borrower.
- A participation mortgage allows borrowers and lenders to share income and profit from selling and renting property.
- Participation mortgages are usually provided by nontraditional lenders, such as entrepreneurs and venture capital investors, as part of real estate deals.
- Participation mortgages can reduce default risk and usually result in lower interest rates.
View Article Sources
- ABCs of loan participation due diligence – NCUA
- Drafting and securitizing participation mortgages – Pepperdine University
- 2019 Small Business Credit Survey – Federal Reserve
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