# Required Rate of Return (RRR): Definition With Examples

Summary:

The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is a crucial concept in finance, representing the minimum return an investor requires for holding a stock or pursuing an investment project. It’s also known as the hurdle rate and varies based on the level of risk involved. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the definition, calculation methods, applications, and examples of RRR. Understanding RRR is essential for making informed investment decisions and evaluating potential projects.

## Introduction

Investors and financial analysts rely on the Required Rate of Return (RRR) to assess the minimum acceptable return for investing in stocks or undertaking business projects. RRR, often referred to as the hurdle rate, serves as compensation for the associated level of risk. This comprehensive article explores the concept of RRR, its significance, calculation methods, real-world examples, and its role in making informed financial decisions.

## Understanding the required rate of return

At its core, the Required Rate of Return (RRR) represents the minimum rate of return that investors demand to justify owning a company’s stock or engaging in an investment. This return serves as compensation for the perceived risk linked to the investment. Here are the key takeaways:

## Methods for calculating RRR

There are two primary methods for calculating the Required Rate of Return: the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM).

### Calculating RRR using the dividend discount model (DDM)

The Dividend Discount Model is ideal for calculating RRR when considering equity shares in a dividend-paying company. A popular variant is the Gordon Growth Model. The formula for RRR using DDM is:

RRR = (Expected Dividend Payment / Share Price) + Forecasted Dividend Growth Rate

To calculate RRR using DDM:

1. Take the expected dividend payment and divide it by the current stock price.
2. Add the result to the forecasted dividend growth rate.

### Calculating RRR using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM)

CAPM is suitable for stocks that do not pay dividends and involves considering the asset’s beta, risk-free rate, and market rate of return. The formula for RRR using CAPM is:

RRR = Risk-free Rate of Return + Beta × (Market Rate of Return – Risk-free Rate of Return)

To calculate RRR using CAPM:

1. Subtract the risk-free rate of return from the market rate of return.
2. Multiply the above figure by the asset’s beta.
3. Add this result to the risk-free rate to determine the required rate of return.

## Significance of the required rate of return

The Required Rate of Return (RRR) plays a vital role in equity valuation and corporate finance. However, it’s a complex metric influenced by individual investors’ goals, risk preferences, inflation expectations, and a company’s capital structure. Here’s what it signifies:

• Investors using CAPM require a higher RRR for riskier stocks, compensating for the increased risk.
• In capital projects, RRR helps decide whether to pursue a project based on its expected return.
• Accurate RRR calculation involves considering cost of capital, returns from competing investments, and inflation.

## Examples of RRR calculations

Let’s explore examples of RRR calculations using both the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM).

### Example of RRR using DDM

Imagine a company expected to pay an annual dividend of \$3 next year, with a current stock price of \$100 and a 4% growth rate:

RRR = 7% or ((\$3 Expected Dividend / \$100 Per Share) + 4% Growth Rate)

### Example of RRR using CAPM

Suppose the current risk-free rate is 2%, the market’s average rate of return is 10%, and Company A has a beta of 1.50:

RRR = 14% or (2% + 1.50 × (10% – 2%))

For Company B, with a beta of 0.50:

RRR = 6% or (2% + 0.50 × (10% – 2%))

## Required rate of return vs. cost of capital

While the Required Rate of Return (RRR) is crucial for capital budgeting, it differs from the cost of capital. The cost of capital is the minimum return needed to cover debt and equity issuance costs for a project. RRR should always exceed the cost of capital.

## Limitations of the required rate of return

RRR calculations have limitations:

• They don’t account for inflation expectations.
• RRR varies among investors with different risk tolerances.
• Liquidity isn’t factored in; illiquid investments carry higher risk.
• Comparing RRR across industries can be challenging due to differing risk levels.

## Comparing RRR with internal rate of return (IRR)

Internal Rate of Return (IRR) assesses an investment’s annual growth rate. Investments with IRR greater than the minimum RRR are typically pursued.

## What Is considered a good return on investment (ROI)?

A good Return on Investment (ROI) is often considered to be approximately 7% per year or higher, aligning with the average annual return of benchmarks like the S&P 500, adjusted for inflation.

## Real-life application of RRR

Understanding how the Required Rate of Return (RRR) operates in real-life scenarios can provide valuable insights into its significance. Let’s explore two practical examples to illustrate its application.

### Example 1: investment in a tech startup

Imagine you’re considering investing in a tech startup. The company has shown tremendous potential but operates in a highly competitive and volatile industry. Assessing the RRR in this context becomes crucial. Your RRR should account for the increased risk associated with startups. You might use the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) to calculate RRR, taking into account the startup’s beta, risk-free rate, and market rate of return. If the calculated RRR exceeds the expected return from the startup, it may be a worthwhile investment.

### Example 2: Corporate capital budgeting

Corporations use RRR to evaluate capital projects and determine whether to allocate resources to them. Let’s consider a manufacturing company deciding between two projects: Project A, which involves upgrading existing machinery, and Project B, which explores entering a new market. The RRR for each project will depend on factors like project risk, expected returns, and the company’s cost of capital. If Project B has a higher RRR than Project A, it may justify the higher risk and resource allocation.

Inflation plays a significant role in investment decisions and can erode the real value of returns. Adjusting the Required Rate of Return (RRR) for inflation is essential for accurate assessments.

Investors often require a higher nominal RRR when inflation expectations are high. The formula for adjusting RRR for inflation involves adding the expected inflation rate to the desired real RRR. By factoring in inflation, investors can ensure that their investments maintain their purchasing power over time.

## Comparing RRR across industries

While RRR is a valuable tool for assessing investment opportunities, comparing RRR across different industries can be challenging due to varying risk levels. Each industry has its unique risk factors, and what constitutes an acceptable RRR may differ significantly.

For example, the RRR for investments in a stable, mature industry like utilities may be lower compared to investments in a highly dynamic and volatile industry like technology startups. Investors need to consider industry-specific risk profiles when setting their RRR, ensuring it aligns with the associated risks.

By taking these factors into account, investors can make more informed decisions when setting their RRR and evaluating investment opportunities.

## The bottom line

The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is a pivotal metric in finance that guides investment decisions and project evaluations. It reflects the risk-return trade-off, varying among investors based on their risk tolerance and objectives. While different models calculate RRR, it’s essential to consider factors like cost of capital, competing returns, and inflation for precise assessments. RRR serves as a benchmark, ensuring investments meet minimum return expectations relative to other opportunities.

### What is the significance of the Required Rate of Return (RRR) in finance?

The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is a critical metric in finance as it represents the minimum return an investor expects to justify investing in a stock or undertaking an investment project. It serves as a compensation for the associated level of risk.

### How do I calculate the Required Rate of Return (RRR) using the Dividend Discount Model (DDM)?

To calculate RRR using the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), you need to divide the expected dividend payment by the current stock price and add the forecasted dividend growth rate. The formula is RRR = (Expected Dividend Payment / Share Price) + Forecasted Dividend Growth Rate.

### What is the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and how is it used to calculate RRR?

The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is a method used to calculate RRR, especially for stocks that do not pay dividends. CAPM considers the asset’s beta, risk-free rate, and market rate of return. The formula for RRR using CAPM is RRR = Risk-free Rate of Return + Beta × (Market Rate of Return – Risk-free Rate of Return).

### What factors should I consider when determining my RRR for investments?

When determining your RRR for investments, you should consider your risk tolerance, investment goals, inflation expectations, and the specific risk associated with the investment. Additionally, you may factor in the cost of capital and the returns available from other competing investments.

### What is the difference between the Required Rate of Return (RRR) and the cost of capital?

The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is the minimum return needed to justify an investment based on its risk, while the cost of capital is the minimum return needed to cover the costs of debt and equity issuance for a project. RRR should always be higher than the cost of capital.

### Can the Required Rate of Return (RRR) be adjusted for inflation?

Yes, the Required Rate of Return (RRR) can be adjusted for inflation. Investors often require a higher nominal RRR when inflation expectations are high. This adjustment involves adding the expected inflation rate to the desired real RRR to account for the eroding effect of inflation on investment returns.

### How does the Required Rate of Return (RRR) vary across different industries?

The Required Rate of Return (RRR) can vary significantly across different industries due to variations in risk levels. Industries with higher perceived risk, such as technology startups, may require a higher RRR compared to stable and mature industries like utilities. Investors should consider industry-specific risk profiles when setting their RRR.

## Key takeaways

• RRR is the minimum return an investor requires for owning a stock or pursuing an investment.
• Calculating RRR involves considering factors such as cost of capital, competing investment returns, and inflation.
• RRR is subjective and varies among investors based on their risk tolerance and objectives.
###### View Article Sources
1. 3. VALUATION OF BONDS AND STOCK Investors … – University of Scranton
2. Financial Internal Rate of Return (FIRR)1 – JICA
3. How to calculate Required Rate of Return (RRR) – unife.it