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STIBOR: Definition, Calculation, and Real-World Applications

Last updated 03/24/2024 by

Silas Bamigbola

Edited by

Fact checked by

STIBOR, or the Stockholm Interbank Offered Rate, is the benchmark interest rate used by Swedish banks for short-term lending among themselves. Calculated daily based on submissions from panel banks, STIBOR reflects the average borrowing costs in the Swedish money market. It serves as a crucial reference rate for various financial products, influencing interest rates on loans, mortgages, and derivatives.

Introduction to STIBOR

The Stockholm Interbank Offered Rate (STIBOR) is a vital benchmark interest rate in Sweden, similar to the London Interbank offered rate (LIBOR) in other financial markets. It represents the average interest rate at which Swedish banks lend to each other without collateral for various short-term periods, including overnight, one week, one month, two months, three months, and six months.
STIBOR is calculated daily and serves as a reference rate for financial instruments, such as derivatives, bonds, and loans, in the Swedish money market. The rate is determined based on submissions from seven-panel banks, including Danske Bank, Nordea bank, SEB, Handelsbanken, Swedbank, länsförsäkringar Bank, and SBAB Bank.

Calculation and administration

The Swedish financial benchmark facility took over the responsibility of calculating and administering STIBOR from the Swedish Bankers’ association in April 2020. The benchmark is derived from the submissions of panel banks, excluding the highest and lowest rates, and averaging the remaining rates to determine the reference rate for each maturity.

Role of STIBOR

STIBOR plays a crucial role in the Swedish financial system by influencing the pricing of various financial products and serving as a benchmark for interest rates in the economy. It provides transparency and efficiency to the money market, allowing market participants to assess borrowing costs accurately.

Comparison with LIBOR

STIBOR is often compared to LIBOR due to its function as a reference rate in respective financial markets. However, while LIBOR has faced scrutiny and reforms following the 2012 scandal, STIBOR has undergone continuous review to ensure its integrity and alignment with international standards.

Methodology and oversight

Submission process

Panel banks submit their lending rates to the Swedish financial benchmark facility, which employs a transparent methodology to calculate the reference rate. The exclusion of extreme rates and the averaging process ensure the accuracy and reliability of STIBOR as a benchmark.

Oversight committee

An oversight committee oversees the methodology, determination, and dissemination of STIBOR to maintain its credibility and integrity. The committee’s responsibilities include ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and addressing any issues related to the benchmark.

Transparency and compliance

Whistleblower system

STIBOR has implemented a whistleblower system to encourage the reporting of any irregularities or misconduct related to the benchmark. While confidentiality is maintained during investigations, disclosing identities may be necessary to substantiate allegations and maintain transparency.

Public consultation

In March 2021, the Swedish financial benchmark facility initiated a public consultation phase to enhance the transparency and alignment of STIBOR with international standards. The review aims to address any shortcomings in the benchmark and ensure its continued relevance in the financial markets.

Applications of STIBOR

Besides serving as a benchmark for interest rates, STIBOR has practical applications in various financial transactions and products. For instance, it influences the pricing of adjustable-rate mortgages, commercial loans, and other credit products offered by Swedish banks. Additionally, STIBOR derivatives, such as interest rate swaps and futures contracts, allow market participants to hedge against interest rate risk or speculate on future interest rate movements.


An example of STIBOR’s application is in the pricing of a variable-rate mortgage offered by a Swedish bank. The interest rate on the mortgage may be set as STIBOR plus a margin determined by the lender. As STIBOR fluctuates, the interest payments on the mortgage adjust accordingly, providing flexibility for both borrowers and lenders.

Impact of STIBOR on financial markets

STIBOR plays a significant role in influencing the behavior of participants in the Swedish financial markets. Changes in STIBOR rates can have far-reaching implications for borrowing and lending activities, investment decisions, and overall market sentiment. Understanding the dynamics of STIBOR and its impact on various sectors of the economy is essential for investors, policymakers, and financial institutions.


During periods of economic uncertainty or financial instability, fluctuations in STIBOR rates may signal changes in market conditions and risk appetite among banks. A rise in STIBOR rates could indicate tightening liquidity or increased credit risk, leading to higher borrowing costs for businesses and consumers. Conversely, a decline in STIBOR rates may stimulate lending activity and support economic growth.


The Stockholm Interbank Offered Rate (STIBOR) is a fundamental benchmark interest rate in the Swedish financial system, representing the average lending rates among banks for short-term loans. Managed by the Swedish financial benchmark facility, STIBOR plays a vital role in pricing financial instruments and ensuring transparency in the money market. Continuous oversight and review mechanisms uphold the integrity and reliability of STIBOR as a benchmark, reflecting Sweden’s commitment to maintaining a robust and efficient financial infrastructure.

Frequently asked questions

What factors can influence STIBOR rates?

STIBOR rates can be influenced by various factors, including changes in the monetary policy set by the Swedish central bank, the Riksbank, economic indicators such as inflation and unemployment rates, as well as global market conditions and geopolitical events.

How frequently are STIBOR rates updated?

STIBOR rates are typically updated on a daily basis, reflecting current market conditions and the prevailing interest rates in the Swedish money market. However, the frequency of updates may vary depending on the maturity of the loan or financial instrument tied to STIBOR.

Are STIBOR rates the same across all maturities?

No, STIBOR rates can vary across different maturities, ranging from overnight to six months. Each maturity represents a different period for which banks are willing to lend to each other, and therefore, the corresponding STIBOR rate may differ based on market demand and supply dynamics.

How does STIBOR compare to other benchmark rates?

STIBOR is similar to other benchmark rates, such as LIBOR, but it specifically represents the interest rates at which Swedish banks lend to each other. While both serve as reference rates in financial markets, STIBOR reflects the Swedish money market’s conditions and may exhibit differences from other benchmarks.

Can STIBOR rates be manipulated?

Efforts are made to ensure the integrity of STIBOR rates and prevent manipulation. The Swedish Financial Benchmark Facility oversees the calculation and administration of STIBOR, and measures such as the exclusion of extreme rates and transparency in the submission process help maintain the credibility of the benchmark.

How does STIBOR impact borrowers and lenders?

STIBOR rates influence the cost of borrowing and lending for banks, businesses, and consumers in Sweden. Changes in STIBOR rates can affect the interest rates on loans, mortgages, and other financial products, impacting borrowing costs for individuals and businesses, as well as profitability for banks.

Is STIBOR being replaced?

While STIBOR continues to be a key benchmark rate in Sweden, efforts are underway to transition to alternative reference rates, such as the Swedish Riksbank’s overnight repo rate, in line with global reforms in benchmark rates. However, STIBOR remains relevant in the Swedish financial system and continues to be monitored and reviewed for its integrity and effectiveness.

Key takeaways

  • STIBOR is the benchmark interest rate used by swedish banks for short-term loans.
  • The rate is calculated based on submissions from seven panel banks and serves as a reference rate for various financial products.
  • Continuous oversight and review mechanisms ensure the integrity and reliability of STIBOR as a benchmark.
  • The swedish financial benchmark facility oversees the calculation and administration of STIBOR, promoting transparency and compliance with international standards.

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