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Predatory Pricing: Definition, Effects, and Real-Life Cases

Last updated 03/19/2024 by

Silas Bamigbola

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Predatory pricing is an illegal business strategy where prices are set unrealistically low to eliminate competition and potentially create a monopoly. This practice violates antitrust laws, but prosecuting it can be challenging. While consumers may benefit from lower prices in the short term, predatory pricing can harm choice and competition in the long run. This article explores the concept, its effects on markets and consumers, legal challenges, and real-world examples. Learn more about predatory pricing and its implications for businesses and consumers.

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Understanding Predatory Pricing

What is predatory pricing?

Predatory pricing is a controversial business practice where a company intentionally sets prices for its products or services lower than their cost in an effort to eliminate competitors. The ultimate goal of this strategy is to create a monopoly in the market. However, proving predatory pricing in court can be complex, as defendants may argue that they were merely engaging in aggressive competition.

Effects on consumers and markets

In the short term, consumers often enjoy the benefits of competitive pricing. With multiple players in the market, prices tend to be lower, giving consumers more choices and better deals. However, when a company engages in predatory pricing, it forces competitors to leave the market, resulting in a monopolistic situation where the remaining company can raise prices without fear of competition. This can harm consumers in the long run.

The pitfalls of predatory pricing

While predatory pricing might seem like a powerful strategy to eliminate competitors, it comes with significant risks. Sustaining artificially low prices for an extended period can be challenging, especially in markets with numerous competitors. Once the predatory firm raises its prices to normal levels, new competitors may seize the opportunity to enter or re-enter the market.

Dumping as predatory pricing

What is dumping?

Dumping is a specific form of predatory pricing used by companies seeking to dominate foreign markets. In this practice, businesses sell their products in a foreign market at prices lower than what they charge domestically. Dumping can also involve goods being bought abroad and resold in the home country at higher prices.

Historical example of dumping

An example from the early 20th century involves a German cartel that controlled the European market for bromine, an essential component in medicines and photography. When Dow Chemical competitively priced bromine for export to Europe, the Germans retaliated by exporting bromine to the U.S. below manufacturing cost. Dow responded by purchasing the cheap bromine and reselling it in Europe, strengthening its position at the expense of the German cartel.

Predatory pricing and the law

Challenges in prosecuting predatory pricing

Legal prosecution of predatory pricing is challenging. Proving that low prices are harmful and illegal is a complex task. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) examines such allegations but acknowledges that courts have been skeptical of these claims. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) asserts that predatory pricing is a real problem but also highlights the courts’ cautious stance on the issue. To establish an antitrust case, plaintiffs must show that the pricing practices will not only affect competitors but also the market as a whole. Additionally, predatory pricing must go beyond being merely aggressive; it must be below the seller’s cost.

Non-predatory reasons for low pricing

It’s important to note that setting prices below cost is not always illegal. Businesses may have legitimate reasons for doing so that are unrelated to eliminating competition.

Real-world examples

Walmart’s allegations of predatory pricing

Walmart has faced allegations of predatory pricing. In 1993, a judge ordered the retailer to stop selling drugs and health and beauty products below cost after local stores accused the company of undercutting them to force them out of business. This case was not unique, as similar accusations arose in other states, with Walmart being accused of predatory pricing on multiple occasions.

Is predatory pricing illegal?

Legal status of predatory pricing

Predatory pricing is indeed illegal, as it violates antitrust laws in the U.S. and other countries aimed at ensuring fair competition. To establish a legal case against a company, prosecutors must prove that the company intended not just to compete but to eliminate its competition.

Challenges in detecting predatory pricing

Proving intent in court

One of the key challenges in prosecuting predatory pricing is proving the intent to eliminate competition. While prices set below cost may raise suspicions, the burden of proof is high. Courts often require concrete evidence that the company intentionally engaged in predatory pricing rather than simply aggressive competition. This can be a significant obstacle in legal proceedings.

Competitive market considerations

In competitive markets, companies often engage in price wars and temporary price reductions to attract customers. Distinguishing between legitimate price competition and predatory pricing can be tricky. To tackle this challenge, regulators must carefully assess market dynamics and a company’s behavior over an extended period to establish predatory intent.

Global implications of predatory pricing

International trade and dumping

Predatory pricing isn’t confined to domestic markets. It can have far-reaching implications in international trade. Businesses engaging in dumping practices export their products to foreign markets at lower prices than they charge domestically. This can disrupt local industries and lead to trade disputes. Authorities, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), monitor and address such cases to ensure fair international trade.

Complex supply chain considerations

Modern supply chains are complex, involving multiple suppliers, intermediaries, and global logistics. This complexity can make it challenging to identify predatory pricing, especially when companies distribute their costs throughout the supply chain. In such cases, it’s essential to examine the entire supply chain to determine whether predatory pricing is taking place.

Real-world cases of predatory pricing

Tech industry: predatory pricing and monopolies

In the tech industry, there have been allegations of predatory pricing aimed at dominating markets. For instance, some tech giants have been accused of selling products, like tablets or e-readers, at prices significantly below cost to gain market dominance. These practices have raised concerns about potential monopolistic behavior and stifling competition.

Pharmaceutical industry: drug pricing controversies

The pharmaceutical industry has witnessed controversies related to drug pricing. In some instances, pharmaceutical companies have faced accusations of predatory pricing for essential medications, such as insulin. Lowering prices below manufacturing costs can eliminate competition and allow these companies to control the market, potentially harming patients who rely on these medications.

The ongoing debate

Balancing competition and innovation

The ongoing debate around predatory pricing revolves around the balance between fostering healthy competition and encouraging innovation. While predatory pricing can harm competition, some argue that it can also drive innovation and benefit consumers in the short term through lower prices. Striking the right balance in antitrust regulation remains a complex challenge.

The role of regulators

Antitrust regulators and competition authorities play a crucial role in monitoring and addressing predatory pricing. They must adapt to the evolving business landscape and address new forms of predatory pricing, such as online platforms undercutting competitors. Regulators continue to refine their approaches to protect competition and consumer interests effectively.


In conclusion, predatory pricing is a controversial strategy employed by companies to undercut their competitors by setting prices artificially low. While it can lead to short-term benefits for consumers, such as lower prices, it often results in reduced competition and potential monopolies. Proving predatory pricing in court is challenging, as it requires demonstrating both intent and pricing below cost. Real-world examples, like the allegations against Walmart, show that predatory pricing remains a contentious issue in business. As markets continue to evolve, it’s crucial for authorities to address predatory pricing to maintain healthy competition and protect consumers.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the main goal of predatory pricing?

Predatory pricing aims to eliminate competitors by setting prices artificially low, with the ultimate goal of establishing a monopoly in the market.

How does predatory pricing affect consumers in the short term?

In the short term, consumers often benefit from lower prices, increased choices, and better deals due to competitive pricing.

What are the long-term consequences of predatory pricing for consumers?

Long-term consequences of predatory pricing can include reduced competition, limited choices, and potential monopolies, which may result in higher prices and fewer options for consumers.

Why is prosecuting predatory pricing challenging in court?

Proving predatory pricing in court can be complex because it requires demonstrating both intent and pricing below cost, which can be challenging to establish.

Are there legitimate reasons for setting prices below cost?

Yes, businesses may have valid reasons for setting prices below cost that are unrelated to eliminating competition.

What is the role of antitrust regulators in addressing predatory pricing?

Antitrust regulators play a crucial role in monitoring and addressing predatory pricing to protect competition and consumer interests effectively, adapting to the evolving business landscape.

Key takeaways

  • Predatory pricing involves setting prices lower than the cost to eliminate competitors and potentially create a monopoly.
  • In the short term, consumers benefit from lower prices, but in the long term, it can harm competition and limit choices.
  • Proving predatory pricing in court can be challenging, as it requires demonstrating intent and pricing below cost.

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