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What Is the Maturity Date of a Loan?

Last updated 03/14/2024 by

Camilla Smoot

Edited by

Fact checked by

Summary:
The maturity date of a loan maturity is the last day you have to fully pay off your loan plus any added interest. Failing to pay off the debt by the maturity date could result in a late fee or, in the case of a mortgage, foreclosure. If you are unable to meet this deadline, consider refinancing or extending your loan.
Whether it’s a personal loan, auto loan, or mortgage loan, getting approved for one can be an exciting time. But before you get too excited, there’s one important thing you need to ask yourself first: how long do you have to pay off this debt? That is why maturity dates are important. A maturity date is essentially the due day of your loan. You have until that day to pay off all remaining interest and balance. But what happens if that day comes and you can’t pay it off? There are a few options available to you, but first, we need to understand maturity dates.
Here’s a tip: CDs, bonds, and promissory notes are also some debt instruments that have maturity dates. If you’re interested in a CD account and want to learn more, check out this page.

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What is a maturity date for a fixed-income instrument?

When it comes to finances, there are different types of maturity dates. In general terms, a maturity date is the end of a fixed term. It can apply to investments, such as certificates of deposit or Treasury bonds, and loans. For example, if you get a Treasury bond with a 10-year maturity date, you will receive the full face value of your investment in 10 years. The maturity date of an investment also is used to classify it. In the case of bonds, the maturity date classifies them as a short-term (1 to 3 years), medium-term (10 or more years), or long-term (30 years) investment. In the case of debt instruments, such as mortgages, promissory notes, and loans, the maturity date is the deadline to pay the loan.

What is the maturity date on a loan?

A loan maturity date is the final due date of your loan. You must pay off the principal balance and all accumulated interest by the maturity date.
So, for example, if you take out a 30-year mortgage loan on February 1, 2020, the maturity is 30 years. The maturity date is February 1, 2050. You have until that date to pay off the principal amount and interest.

How to calculate maturity date

You don’t typically need to calculate the maturity date of a fixed-income instrument or loan. The lender or investor will usually provide the maturity date with the paperwork needed to qualify for the loan or investment. However, if you don’t know the maturity date you can calculate it by adding the term of the loan to the date your loan was approved. For example, if your 5-year loan was approved on January 30th, 2021, then your maturity date would be around January 30th, 2026.
If you don’t know your term length, call your lender. The contact number should be on your last statement. You can also estimate your maturity date by entering your interest rate, loan balance, and your monthly payments in a loan calculator.

Why do loan maturity dates matter?

Maturity dates clearly define when borrowers need to repay the principal amount and remaining interest on their loans. This can help them see how much their monthly payments will be and give them an idea of how long they will be paying off the debt. Failing to repay a loan by its maturity date could lead to some serious financial consequences.

What happens if I can’t pay off the loan by the maturity date?

Ideally, you should be able to have your debt fully paid off by the maturity date. Failing to do so can result in a late fee. If enough time passes without payments being made, you could face such debt-collection measures as, in the case a home loan, foreclosure. But life happens, and paying off that debt on time may not be possible. If this is the case, you have a few options available to you. As always, discuss these options with your lender before taking any steps.

Options if can’t pay your loan by maturity

Are you unable to pay off your loan by the maturity date? Here are some options to discuss with your lender.
  • Extend the loan. You can receive a short-term extension with some loans. These extensions are usually given for construction loans or lines of credit. Your lender will need your financial information to extend the loan.
  • Renew the loan. Loan renewals are when you pay a fee to extend the due date of the loan. Loan renewals are most common among commercial working capital lines of credit or business loans.
  • Refinance the loan. Refinancing a loan essentially means you trade in your old mortgage for a new one. In some cases, refinancing your loan could result in a new loan balance.
On the subject of refinancing, this is definitely worth considering if you won’t be able to meet your payment obligations for your current mortgage loan. If you’ve built up some equity in your home, you may even be able to draw out some of it as cash.

SuperMoney may receive compensation from some or all of the companies featured, and the order of results are influenced by advertising bids, with exception for mortgage and home lending related products. Learn more

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FAQ

What happens if you don’t pay a loan by the maturity date?

If the maturity date comes and goes without your paying off the loan, you will be charged a late fee. If it continues to go unpaid, your lender will seek to collect by other means. These vary depending on the loan type. In the case of a mortgage, the foreclosure process could occur. If you miss the maturity date on an auto loan or another loan secured by personal property, repossession may be the collection method of choice. In the case of an unsecured personal loan, you may find yourself dealing with a collection agency. All of these can can seriously hurt your credit history.

Can you pay off a loan before the maturity date?

Yes, you can usually pay off your loan before the maturity date. This could save you some money, as your lender no longer collects interest after the loan is paid off. Sometimes, however, there is an extra cost for paying off your loan early. Talk to your lender about this before taking action.

What does a loan maturity notice mean?

Loan maturity notices are written notices that lenders give to borrowers informing them of their upcoming maturity dates. Always review and retain any maturity notice you receive. If you know you won’t be able to pay off a loan by an upcoming maturity date, talk to your lender about options before this date.
If the loan in question is a car loan, refinancing could be worth looking into.

SuperMoney may receive compensation from some or all of the companies featured, and the order of results are influenced by advertising bids, with exception for mortgage and home lending related products. Learn more

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What happens after the maturity date passes?

If you have paid off your loan in full, the loan ceases to exist. If you have failed to make your payments, a late fee and possibly more severe consequences, such as foreclosure in the case of a mortgage, may occur.

Key takeaways

  • Maturity in finance is the amount of time a borrower has to pay off a debt instrument.
  • The maturity date on a loan is the final day the borrower has to pay off that loan.
  • Failing to pay by a loan’s maturity date could result in late fees or more severe consequences that vary with the type of loan — foreclosure for a home loan, repossession for a car loan, and so on.
  • If you can’t make your payments on time, you can look into refinancing, renewing, or extending your loan.

Avoid problems by choosing the right loan and lender

One way to make it less likely that you’ll fail to pay off your next loan by its maturity date is to thoroughly research lenders and loan offers before you sign any loan agreement. Knowing what you’re getting into ahead of time, and knowing that you’ve found the lender and loan that best suits your unique financial situation and life goals, makes problems much less likely later on.
For instance, if you’re a first-time homebuyer looking to take out a mortgage, be sure to do your research to find the best lender. SuperMoney lists some of the best mortgage lenders for first-time homebuyers. Check out our list and FAQ about mortgages here.
If, instead, you’re thinking of getting a personal loan, read our guide to the best personal loans.

SuperMoney may receive compensation from some or all of the companies featured, and the order of results are influenced by advertising bids, with exception for mortgage and home lending related products. Learn more

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Camilla Smoot

Camilla has a background in journalism and business communications. She specializes in writing complex information in understandable ways. She has written on a variety of topics including money, science, personal finance, politics, and more. Her work has been published in the HuffPost, KSL.com, Deseret News, and more.

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